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Lab design for the part of project

Network Fundamentals

A PC network is a gathering of PCs that utilization a bunch of normal correspondence conventions over computerized interconnections to share assets situated on or gave by the organization hubs. So according to the task brief I had actualized A,B,C and D groups. Close by this entire task builtup I had executed IPv4 convention which are ordinarily utilized this days. Moreover, for this situation for each gatherings I have utilize single non-programmable switch and introduced 2 switches to associated all of 55 least required network nodes.

For group A, I use the IP network and add the first IP to its router and connect it to two non-programmable switches as there is no need for a high-end switch, along with two switches to handle 47 network nodes including PCs, printers, etc. For group B, again I have to use 2 switches as group B has 50 network nodes like PCs, printers, etc. In order to receive a ping between Group A and Group B, I linked their router to each other using cross-over cables, and in the same manner I connected C and D to each other using cross-over cables. To promote understanding and minimise ambiguity, I used a sequential network for each of our classes.

A - B – C – D –

In order the inter-connects the groups I had connected the all the respective router of each group with each other using cross-over cable as you can see below and I have assigned the network group of

Between a to b – Between b to d – Between d to c – Between d to a –

In this network model, in total I have utilized 4 routers, 8 switches and 177 network nodes, the reason for me to chooses this IP is address is it is easy to understand and much more memorable and its way more convenient to assign IPv4 to this small network. Moreover, to balance the load on the switch I had balanced out the network nodes on every groups. Network segmentation can go a long way toward reducing the impact of attacks. When we segment a network, we divide it into multiple smaller networks, each acting as its own small network called a subnet. In this whole project I have used standard subnet( The protocol which I have used is OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) because of benefits provide by OSPF such as

  1. OSPF is a true routing protocol for LOOP-FREE (route-free loop). It stems from the merits of the algorithm itself.
  2. Quick OSPF Convergence: Path modifications can be communicated to the entire autonomous system in the shortest time possible.
  3. The definition of division of the region is proposed. Once the Autonomous System is split into various regions, an overview of the routing information between regions is implemented, which substantially decreases the amount of routing information to be communicated. It also stops routing information from expanding exponentially as the size of the network grows. I am using IPv4 due to IPv4 is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol that was adapted and is now widely used in data communication over different kinds of networks. It is considered as one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods on the internet and it was the first version that was deployed for production during the time of ARPANET. IP stands for a protocol that relies on packet-switched layer networks just like the Ethernet. It provides a logical connection between different network devices by providing identification for each device.

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a computational model developed by the International Organization for Standardization that allows different communication systems to communicate using standard protocols.

(What Is The OSI Model? | Cloudflare UK, n.d.)

Layer 1 – Physical At the lower part of our OSI bean plunge we have the Physical Layer, which speaks to the electrical and actual portrayal of the framework. This can incorporate everything from the link type, radio recurrence connect (as in a 802.11 remote frameworks), just as the format of pins, voltages and other actual necessities. At the point when a systems administration issue happens, many systems administration experts go right to the actual layer to watch that the entirety of the links are appropriately associated and that the force plug hasn't been pulled from the switch, switch or PC, for instance.

Layer 2 – Data Link

The Data Link Layer gives hub to-hub information move (between two straightforwardly associated hubs), and furthermore handles mistake adjustment from the actual layer. Two sublayers exist here also - the Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. In the systems administration world, most switches work at Layer 2. Yet, it's not th at straightforward. A few switches additionally work at Layer 3 to help virtual LANs that may traverse more than one switch subnet, which requires directing abilities.

Layer 3 - Network

Here at the Network Layer is the place where you'll discover the vast majority of the switch usefulness that most systems administration experts care about and love. In its most essential sense, this layer is liable for parcel sending, including steering through various switches. You may realize that your Boston PC needs to associate with a worker in California, yet there are a huge number of various ways to take. Switches at this layer help do this proficiently.

Layer 4 – Transport

The Transport Layer manages the coordination of the information move between end frameworks and hosts. How much information to send, at what rate, where it goes, and so on The most popular illustration of the Transport Layer is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which is based on top of the Internet Protocol (IP), normally known as TCP/IP. TCP and UDP port numbers work at Layer 4, while IP tends to work at Layer 3, the Network Layer.

Layer 5 - Session

At the point when two gadgets, PCs or workers need to "talk" with each other, a meeting should be made, and this is done at the Session Layer. Capacities at this layer include arrangement, coordination (how long should a framework hang tight for a reaction, for instance) and end between the applications at each finish of the meeting.

Layer 6 - Presentation

The Presentation Layer speaks to the territory that is free of information portrayal at the application layer. All in all, it speaks to the readiness or interpretation of utilization arrangement to organize design, or from network organizing to application design. All in all, the layer "presents" information for the application or the organization. A genuine illustration of this is encryption and decoding of information for secure transmission - this occurs at Layer 6.

Layer 7 - Application

To additional our bean plunge similarity, the Application Layer is the one at the top- - it's what most clients see. In the OSI model, this is the layer that is the "nearest to the end client". It gets data straightforwardly from clients and showcases approaching information it to the client. Strangely, applications themselves don't live at the application layer. Rather the layer encourages correspondence through lower layers to build up associations with applications at the opposite end. Internet browsers (Google Chrome, Safari) TelNet, and FTP, are instances of correspondences that depend on Layer 7.

Amongst all there are several threats in our design model such as internal threats, external threats, packet sniffer, port scan and ping sweep migration etc.

Reference: 1.) (2020). 7 Benefits of OSPF Protocol. [online] Available at: 2.) What Is The OSI Model? | Cloudflare UK. (n.d.). Cloudflare. [online] Available at: 3.) Shaw, K. (2020). The OSI model explained and how to easily remember its 7 layers. [online] Network World. Available at:


Lab design for the part of project



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